Register now for our free PDIA online course

written by Salimah Samji

We are delighted to announce that we will be offering our free PDIA online course once again. This is our third iteration of the course and we will use the recently published “Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action” book as the core reading.

We will offer two courses tailored to different audiences. Please read the descriptions below to determine which course is the right one for you. You cannot register for both courses.

  • The Practice of PDIA: Building Capability by Delivering Results (February 26- June 18, 2017). This is a 16-week course for practitioners who are in the weeds of development and actually want to learn how to do PDIA. In this course you will have the opportunity to work together as a team, on your nominated problem, using our tools. The course will include video lectures, required reading, assignments, reflection exercises, peer interaction as well as group work. We estimate that the weekly effort will be between 3-5 hours. If you are interested in this course, you will need to identify a problem you want to solve and a team of 4-6 people who will work with you. Enrollment is limited. Please register here.
  • Principles of PDIA: Building Capability by Delivering Results (February 26- May 7, 2017). This is a 10-week course for practitioners who are not directly involved in the implementation of programs but are interested in learning about PDIA. The course will include video lectures, required reading, assignments, reflection exercises as well as peer interaction. We estimate that the weekly effort required will be between 3-5 hours. Enrollment is limited. If you are interested, please register here.

Here are some testimonials from students who have completed a similar version of the Practice of PDIA: Building Capability by Delivering Results.

The PDIA program faculty was truly exceptional, not only because of their expertise and individual intellect and knowledge and research, but also because they understand how to engage participants in different ways. If you are concerned about why and how countries are poor or mired in a vicious cycle of underdevelopment; then this course is just want you need to help unravel the answers to your questions and arm up with the principles and know-how to tackle them.” Abdulrauf Aliyu, Head of Business Development and Strategy, Inteliworx Technologies, Nigeria

A couple of years ago I joined the development industry as a program officer for a bilateral aid agency in Tanzania. Three years down the line I was frustrated: our partners in the government were “always committed” but things were not really moving in the way and pace we hoped they would. In short, nothing much was changing. If anyone asked me at the time who is at fault, I would have hastened to say it was the government. Having done the PDIA course, however, I can appreciate better why things were happening the way they were, and our responsibility as staff members of funding agencies in the reform failures. So I am thrilled that it is possible to do development differently, the PDIA way. It does not promise that it will be easier doing development this way, and it might never get any easier; but I believe it offers a better chance of bringing real and lasting change even if it comes slowly.” Rose Aiko, Independent Consultant, Tanzania

The course was terrific from both a theoretical and practical standpoint. I was amazed about how accurately the issues addressed in the course related to my day-to-day experiences working in development. In fact, our work plan for our upcoming technical assistance program is largely based on PDIA!” Team Leader, Asian Development Bank, Dili, Timor-Leste

“The PDIA course has been for me the learning highlight of this year. The course has given me the knowledge of a process and tools that I was looking since traditional approaches to projects with best practices from elsewhere, solution-based, blueprint-based, with fixed plan, aiming always at system change, etc. do not work in most cases. I have now a set of steps and, more importantly, questions that can guide me in the work with colleagues and partners to understand the context in which we try to introduce change, identify concrete problems that people want to solve, and try to solve them, one at a time.” Arnaldo Pellini, Research Fellow, Overseas Development Institute

As a Project Manager and Solutions Consultant in Nigeria, taking “PDIA: Building Capability by Delivering Results” opened paths to new possibilities for finding and fitting solutions that are based on specific contexts and current realities, by working with clients, communities and policy drivers. At the heart of these possibilities is the realization that no matter what the problem is or how complex it seems, we can start acting immediately. Most importantly, the interactions with peers and access to a growing PDIA Community of Practice provide unlimited potentials for the future.” Abubakar Abdullahi, Managing Principal, The Front Office NG, Nigeria

“Having worked in development for 35 years I recommend this course to all development practitioners. PDIA is a detailed process that will facilitate your design and implementation approach. PDIA has several steps. I believe the adoption of either all of these steps or just some selected steps will improve the design and implementation of your projects and programs, with improved benefits and results.”  John Whittle, Semi-retired and Consulting in Central Asia

“Through the modules of PDIA, I have had a mindset change on how development works and how it could work. It is an approach that has opened my eyes to many things that I had previously struggled to understand in my 15 years of development practice, where I have observed vicious cycles of problems like chronic poverty, corruption, and poor service delivery despite heavy investments by donors and recipient governments. I will continue to see my work with a PDIA lens and assess new projects in the same way. It is exciting to try and do things differently in an effort to get different results from the norm.” Cate Najjuma, Economist, Royal Danish Embassy, Kampala

“The PDIA course is perfectly designed for those who are currently trying to address real world issues. It has contributed to increase my value add on reform issues in Tunisia.  The course is very focused and practical, allowing it to fit into the busy schedule of professionals like me and to learn at an impressive pace.  I definitely recommend it to prospective applicants.” Gomez Agou, IMF Desk Economist, Washington DC

“The PDIA course showed how approaching and solving complex and challenging reform efforts are not pinned on rigid, structured frameworks but rather on a common sense approach bottled in a simple method all rooted on the fundamentals of understanding, clarifying, learning, experimenting and adapting.” Abubakar Sadiq Isa, Managing Director, Inteliworx Technologies, Nigeria

“The PDIA course represents an empirical reform prescription in building state capability by delivering results through theoretical and practical approaches geared toward sustained improvement and performance. Tom Tombekai, Liberia

“I enjoyed taking the course PDIA: Building Capacity by Delivering Results. I have been doing development work in Africa in the anti-corruption area. This course introduced me to some new concepts in terms of building acceptance for ideas and programs and especially understanding the environment in terms of what may be possible and how success should be measured. It has has changed how I will approach future development problems. I very much enjoyed the readings, lectures and interactions with other students from around the world.” Craig Hannaford, Independent Consultant, Canada

“I have also been taught that every problem has got a series of causes and sub-causes. You really have to be very critical in analyzing a problem in order to address it effectively. This is one of the products of PDIA. I find myself thinking outside the box when I have to solve a problem whether in the office, with vendors or even at home. It is in this course that I first heard “deconstruction of a problem”. Deconstruction and sequencing work has helped me to foster actions to solve a problem. Ultimately, through this course PDIA, I have learnt that in the development sector, before bringing solutions to the government, I have to understand the existing practice, positive deviance, latent practice and external best practice. Without this course, I would not be an improved reformer.” Doris Ahuchama, Finance and Administration Manager, Nigeria

 

Download the new PDIA book for free

written by Salimah Samji

We are delighted to inform you that our PDIA book entitled, “Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action” was just published by Oxford University Press. The book presents an evidence-based analysis of development failures and explains how capability traps emerge and persist. It is not just a critique, it also offers a way of doing things differently. It provides you with the tools you need to personalize and apply these new ideas to your own context.

Here is a review written by Francis Fukuyama

“Building State Capability provides anyone interested in promoting development with practical advice on how to proceed—not by copying imported theoretical models, but through an iterative learning process that takes into account the messy reality of the society in question. The authors draw on their collective years of real-world experience as well as abundant data and get to what is truly the essence of the development problem.”

In keeping with our commitment to provide free resources to help diffuse our PDIA approach to practitioners around the world, we have enabled an open access title under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). We hope you find the book useful and that it helps create a PDIA community of change that shares, learns and grows together. Visit the book webpage to download your free copy. Please share your thoughts on social media using the hashtag #PDIABook

Listen to what the authors have to say about the book:

 

PDIA Notes 2: Learning to Learn

written by Peter Harrington

After over two years of working with the government of Albania, and as we embark on a new project to work with the government of Sri Lanka, we at the Building State Capability program (BSC) have been learning a lot about doing PDIA in practice.

Lessons have been big and small, practical and theoretical – an emerging body of observations and experience that is constantly informing our work. Amongst other things, we are finding that teams are proving an effective vehicle for tackling problems. We have found that a lot of structure and regular, tight loops of iteration are helping teams reflect and learn. We have found that it is vital to engage with several levels of the bureaucracy at the same time to ensure a stable authorising space for new things to happen. This all amounts to a sort of ‘thick engagement’, where little-and-often type interaction, woven in at many levels, bears more fruit than big set-piece interventions.

Each of these lessons are deserving of deeper exploration in their own right, and we will do so in subsequent posts. For now, I want to draw out some reflections about the real goal of our work, and our theory of change.

In the capacity-building arena, the latest wisdom holds that the best learning comes from doing. We think this is right. Capacity building models that rely purely on workshop or classroom settings and interactions are less effective in creating new know-how than interventions that work alongside officials on real projects, allowing them to learn by working on the job. Many organisations working in the development space now explicitly incorporate this into their methodology, and in so doing promise to ensure delivery of something important alongside the capacity building (think of external organizations that offer assistance in delivery, often by placing advisers into government departments, and promise to ensure a certain goal is achieved and the government capacity to deliver is also enhanced).

It sounds like a win-win (building capabilities while achieving delivery). The problem is that, in practice, when the implementers in the governments inevitably wobble, or get distracted, or pulled off the project by an unsupportive boss (or whatever happens to undermine the process, as has probably happened many times before), the external advisors end up intervening to get the thing done, because that’s what was promised, what the funder often cares more about, and what is measurable.

When that happens, the learning stops. And the idea of learning by doing stops, because the rescue work by external actors signalled that learning by doing—and failing, at least partially, in the process—was at best a secondary objective (and maybe not even a serious one). Think about anything you have ever learned in your life – whether at school or as an adult. If you knew someone was standing by to catch a dropped ball, or in practice was doing most of the legwork, would you have really learned anything? For the institutions where we work, although the deliverable may have been delivered, when the engagement expires, nothing will have changed in the way the institution works in the long run. This applies equally, by the way, to any institution or learning process, anywhere in the world.

The riddle here is this: what really makes things change and improve in an institution, such that delivery is enhanced and capability to deliver is strengthened? The answer is complex, but it boils down to people in the context doing things differently – being empowered to find out what different is and actually pursue it themselves.

In pursuing this answer, we regularly deploy the concept of ‘positive deviance’ in our work: successful behaviors or strategies enabling people to find better solutions to a problem than their peers, despite facing similar challenges and having no extra resources or knowledge than their peers. Such people are everywhere, sometimes succeeding, and depending on the conditions sometimes failing, to change the way things work – either through their own force of will, or by modelling something different. Methods to find and empower positive deviants within a community have existed for many years. But what if, by cultivating a habit of self-directed work and problem solving, it was possible to not just discover positive deviants but create new ones?

Doing things differently stems from thinking differently, and you only think differently when you learn – it’s more or less the definition of learning. Looked at this way, learning becomes the sine qua non of institutional change. It may not be sufficient on its own – structures, systems and processes still matter – but without a change in paradigm among a critical mass of deviants, those other things (which are the stuff of more traditional interventions) will always teeter on the brink of isomorphism.

We believe that positive deviance comes from learning, especially learning in a self-directed way, and learning about things that matter to the people doing them. If you can catalyse this kind of learning in individuals, you create a different kind of agency for change. If you can go beyond this and catalyse this kind of learnings in groups of individuals within an institution or set of institutions, and create a sufficiently strong holding space for their positive deviance to fertilise and affect others, then gradually whole systems can change. In fact, I’d be surprised if there’s any other way that it happens. As Margaret Mead put it, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed, citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.”

This is our theory of change. The methods we use – particularly the structured 6-month intensive learning and action workshop we call Launchpad – are trying above all to accelerate this learning by creating a safe space in which to experiment, teach ideas and methods that disrupt the status quo, and create new team dynamics and work habits among bureaucrats. By working with senior and political leaders at the same time, we are trying to foster different management habits, to help prevent positive deviance being stamped out. In doing all this, the goal is to cultivate individuals, teams, departments and ultimately institutions that have a habit of learning – which is what equips them to adapt and solve their own problems.

This does not mean that the model is necessarily better at achieving project delivery than other methods out there, although so far it has been effective at that too. The difference is that we are willing to let individuals or even teams fail to deliver, because it is critical for the learning, and without learning there is no change in the long term. Doing this is sometimes frustrating and costly, and certainly requires us gritting our teeth and not intervening, but what we see so often is agents and groups of agents working their way out of tricky situations with better ideas and performance than when they went in. They are more empowered and capable to provide the agency needed for their countries’ development. This is the goal, and it can be achieved.

 

 

PDIA: It doesn’t matter what you call it, it matters that you do it

written by Matt Andrews

It is nearly two years since we at the Building State Capability (BSC) program combined with various other groups across the developing world to create an umbrella movement called Doing Development Differently (DDD). The new acronym was meant to provide a convening body for all those entities and people trying to use new methods to achieve development’s goals. We were part of this group with our own approach, which many know as Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA). 

Interestingly, a few of the DDD folks thought we should change this acronym and call PDIA something fresher, cooler, and more interesting; it was too clunky, they said, to ever really catch on, and needed to be called something like ‘agile’ or ‘lean’ (to borrow from approaches we see as influential cousins in the private domain).

The DDD movement has grown quite a bit in the last few years, with many donor organizations embracing the acronym in its work, and some even advocating for doing PDIA in their projects and interventions. A number of aid organizations and development consultancies have developed other, fresher terms to represent their approaches to DDD as well; the most common word we see now is ‘adaptive’, with various organizations creating ‘adaptive’ units or drawing up processes for doing ‘adaptive’ work.

‘Adaptive programming’ certainly rolls off the tongue easier than ‘Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation’!

Some have asked me why we don’t change our approach to call it Adaptive as well, others have asked where we have been while all the discussions about names and titles and acronyms have been going on, and while organizations in the aid world have been developing proposals for adaptive projects and the like (some of which are now turned into large tenders for consulting opportunities).  My answer is simple: I’ve made peace with the fact that we are much more interested in trying to work out how to do this work in the places it is needed the most (in implementing entities within governments that struggle to get stuff done). 

So, we have been working out how to do our PDIA work (where the acronym really reflects what we believe—that complex issues in development can only be addressed through problem driven, iterative, and adaptive processes). Our observation, from taking an action research approach to over twenty policy and reform engagements, a light-touch teaching intervention with over 40 government officials, an online teaching program, and more, is clear: the people we work with (and who actually do the work) in governments don’t really care for the catchy name or acronym, or if PDIA is clunky or novel or old and mainstream. The people we are working with are simply interested in finding help: to empower their organizations by building real capability through the successful achievement of results.

We thus seldom even talk about PDIA, or adaptive programming, or DDD, or agile or lean, or whatever else we talk about in our classrooms and seminar venues back at Harvard (and in many of our blog posts and tweets). Indeed, we find that a key dimension of this work—that makes it work—is not being flashy and cool and cutting edge. It’s about being real and applied, and organic, and relational. And actually quite nodescript and mundane; even boringly focused on helping people do the everyday things that have eluded them.

So, PDIA’s lack of ‘flash’ and ‘coolness’ may be its greatest asset (and one we never knew about), because it does not matter what PDIA is called…what matters is whether it is being done.

A new era for development – the future or already reality?

Guest blog by Arnaldo Pellini

Michael Woolcock, the Lead Social Development Specialist at the World Bank, gave the keynote speech at the International Conference on Best Development Practices and Policies organized by the State Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS) on August, 19-20 in Jakarta. He is one of the leading voices in the debate around new ways for approaching development problems and designing development interventions that are more flexible and context specific. He is the co-author of a well-known paper that presents an alternative approach, the Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation.

Here are some of the key insights I took from Michael Woolcock on a new era for development:

  • We are entering a new era of development which we can be called Development 2.0. Development 1.0 was concerned with technocratic reforms required to provide access to basic services such as education and health. Most countries (certainly middle income countries) have achieved that and have the infrastructures in place: policies, schools, health centers, textbooks, etc. Development 2.0 is about the state capability to make those systems work, providing good quality public services to citizens. For example, schools have been built, teachers are trained, national policies on salary and curricula are in place. So, why is it that some schools perform well and other do not perform well? Those are the questions that we need to research and answer in Development 2.0.
  • Development 2.0 is about multiple (and localized) solutions to development problems. A traditional approach in development is to find smart or best practices and scale them up through nation-wide policies. That approach has had mixed results. Development 2.0 is more about mapping out where public services work well and why as well as where service do not work well and why. Smart practice can still emerge but they can be interpreted to provide a variety of policy responses. This will require moving from the technocratic evidence and knowledge central to Development 1.0, to a more multidisciplinary approach to research and multiple types of evidence that can inform policy decisions aimed at improving service delivery.
  • Multiple sources of evidence help to deal with diversity of development problems. The new evidence generated by various types of research methods and various types of knowledge (eg, community knowledge) will produce maps of variations in service quality and delivery, which can suggest the need for multiple solutions or interventions and to draw as much as possible on local knowledge, initiatives, and various forms of capital (eg budget, social capital, human capital, etc.).
  • Development 2.0 is an era where variation and uncertainty have to be accepted and embraced. It is an era where one-size-fits-all solutions will struggle to succeed and where context specific, technically sound and politically feasible solutions can have a greater chance of success.
  • We, development practitioners and researchers have to learn to become more modest about the extent of what we can learn and, especially, what we can suggest. We can map where bureaucracies struggle and contribute with ideas that can help segments or units of the bureaucracy to provide the services that citizen expect from them. We should avoid the temptation to suggest the solution having mapped with our work only small bits of complex political and institutional realities.

At the end of the meeting I remembered the review written by Malcolm Gladwell about the biography of Albert O. Hirschman, The Gift of Doubt: ‘The economist Albert O. Hirschman […] was a “planner,” the kind of economist who conceives of grand infrastructure projects and bold schemes. But his eye was drawn to the many ways in which plans did not turn out the way they were supposed to—to unintended consequences and perverse outcomes and the puzzling fact that the shortest line between two points is often a dead end. He understood the power of failure and had the gift of doubt.’

Development 2.0 is already here. It seems to me that we should all make use of the same gift of doubt if we are to contribute to progress and innovation in building state capabilities.

PDIA in Indonesia: The new frontline service delivery policy

How does the government of Indonesia make its presence felt by all 250 million citizens across the sprawling archipelago?

While decentralization provides district governments the authority to address local needs, effective execution of these functions relies heavily on the capacity of the local governments to analyze service gaps and drive more coordinated efforts to address them, as well as the capacity of communities to voice their needs, provide feedback and be part of the solution.

To address this, the Medium-Term National Development Plan 2015-19 includes a new policy to improve basic services for the poor and vulnerable. The approach focuses on enhancing interactions at the front line between government, service providers and citizens, as well as their collective ability to diagnose and solve service delivery bottlenecks at the community level.

A multidisciplinary team from 8 sectors conducted a series of field visits between September 2014 and January 2015, with a mission to identify local innovation and best practices for improving services for the poor and vulnerable. Using a PDIA approach, they engaged with a broad set of stakeholders, had enriching interactions, and were able to view the same problem from different angles. Vignettes from their field visits are captured in Catalyzing local innovation to improve services for Indonesia’s Poor. Some of the lessons they learned include:

  • Focus on fostering experimentation and learning at the local level , rather than fixating on sluggish reforms at the central level.
  • One size does not fit all. Instead of prescribing a set menu of interventions to improve service delivery, the approach should be to create a supportive policy and institutional environment that fosters innovation.
  • The locus of innovation also matters. The closer the innovation occurs to the community, the more potential for catalytic change.
  • Diffusion can happen organically but knowledge sharing and creating communities of practice can help the expansion of innovative ideas.

Watch Anna Winoto from the National Development Planning Ministry in Indonesia discuss the frontline service delivery policy at the Doing Development Differently Philippines workshop. The challenge in this work is to facilitate district governments to innovate, which requires multi-disciplinary district teams who can solve problems together, access flexible financing, leadership and change management, and diagnostic tools to allow for rapid feedback.

Rising to the challenge: Supporting PDIA in Nigeria

The importance of thinking and working politically in programs concerned with governance and institutional reform is widely recognized – but shifting from thinking politically to working politically is proving a major challenge. The State Accountability and Voice Initiative (SAVI), a governance reform program in Nigeria, supports local partners and stakeholders not through the usual accountable grants, but through mentoring, capacity building, relationship brokering and seed funding. This approach is making headway in enabling local partners and stakeholders to think and work in politically savvy ways around locally agreed problems – and its success is demonstrated in tangible examples of more responsive state governance in all the states where the program works. Read more here.

The SAVI program in Nigeria, a DFID-funded Empowerment and Accountability program operating in ten states, is included as a case study, among others, in ODI’s new report Adapting Development.